Detroit switches to electronic fuel injection

It was on a sparkling, sub-zero Ohio morning last winter that I really learned to appreciate electronic fuel injection. It was so cold that I could hardly turn the key in the frozen door lock of the new subcompact. Once inside, my breath instantly frosted the windshield. But when I slipped the key into the ignition and twisted, the engine cranked for only an instant before revving smoothly, if a bit stiffly, to a fast idle.

I hadn’t pushed the accelerator pedal to set the choke, much less pumped it furiously to prime the engine, as I would have done or some cars. I just turned the key, and it started. A few seconds later I eased out the clutch, gave the engine a little gas, and the car pulled smoothly onto the street, snow squeaking under the tires. It didn’t buck, hesitate, or stall once. The reason? Electronic fuel injection. Like most drivers, I used to think of performance cars when I thought of fuel injection: Ferraris, Corvettes, and Porsches. True, Volkswagens and some lower-priced imported sedans have been equipped with fuel injection since the late 1960s. But suddenly it seemed as if every U.S. maker was adding it to its everyday economy cars–cars like the Chevrolet Citation, Dodge 600, and Renault Alliance.

Why the sudden switch? I had certainly discovered at least one benefit of electronic fuel injection: better cold starting and smoother warm-up. But what else does this technology offer? What will the changeover mean for the average driver and for the U.S. auto industry?

One place I looked for answers was the Rochester Products Division of General Motors. For decades the name Rochester has been almost synonymous with carburetors. But now the company is rapidly becoming one of the world leaders in fuel-injection technology. Few people realize that Rochester has been involved for many years in the development of electronic fuel injection.


“In 1970 we worked on an electronic multi-point fuel-injection system,” recalls Roland S. Taylor, chief engineer for gasoline and emissions-products design. “But we were unsuccessful as far as the marketplace was concerned. You couldn’t justify the cost because you had to buy the electronics. The carburetors won out because they gave adequate performance for the least cost.” Tipping the balance

It wasn’t long, however, before the new clean-air standards began to tip the balance. To control exhaust emissions, the air-fuel mixture fed to the engine had to be precisely controlled. If too rich (too much fuel and not enough air), emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons soared. If too lean; oxides of nitrogen and engine misfiring became a problem.

If the air-fuel mixture could be tightly controlled, exhaust emissions would be kept low enough so that a catalytic converter in the exhaust system could handle the light cleanup. But a typical engine operates under a wide range of temperatures, loads, and altitudes, all of which require subtle changes in the mixture ratio. Toward a solution

Then, in the mid-1970s, two break-throughs promised a possible solution to the mixture-control problem. The first, the inexpensive microcomputer, needs no further introduction. The second, the oxygen sensor, is less famous but almost as amazing. This hollow, platinum-plated ceramic probe can measure the oxygen level in the blazing 1,112-degree-f exhaust gas and then tell the computer whether the engine is running lean or rich.

If the air-fuel mixture is rich, there will be little oxygen left in the exhaust gas. Oxygen ions flow from the inside surface of the probe–which is exposed to the atmosphere–to the outside surface exposed to the exhaust gas. Just an in a one-cell battery, this ion flow generates a voltage (in this case about one volt).

When the mixture is lean, however, and there is oxygen in the exhaust gas, the ion flow slows, and the sensor output drops to nearly zero.

At first the engineers used the oxygen sensor to fine-tune the carburetor while the engine was running [“Feedback-Carburetor Systems,” PS, Sept. ’82]. The voltage signal from the oxygen sensor, along with data from sensors measuring engine temperature, speed, and manifold vacuum, was fed into the on-board computer. An input signal from the computer then adjusted a mixture-control solenoid in the carburetor body. However, because a carburetor is a maze of separate air and fuel circuits, this closed-loop control, as the engineers call it, is still something of a compromise.


“We went through the whole closed-loop interim because that was all we really had,” says Taylor. “We had to respond very rapidly to the emissions standards. But we really felt that the carburetor wasn’t the best way to meet the standards.”

Moreover, the carburetor was growing increasingly complex, even without the addition of electronics. Owners were starting to complain that cars were hard to service and sometimes didn’t run well no matter how often they were fixed. And because of the closed-loop systems, many cars already had small microprocessors tucked under the dash. A love affair

Engineers love electronic fuel injection (So, I will recommend you to check out this great online resource to learn about fuel injector cleaner or amazing solutions of how to clean fuel injectors in the right way). The first time I picked up an injector–the part that actually meters the fuel into the engine–I understood why.

The injector is nothing more than a solenoid-operated valve, small enough to fit in the palm of your hand. Although some precise machining is involved in manufacturing the valve, its operation is simplicity itself. There are inputs–information from sensors that measure things like engine temperature, load, vehicle speed, and exhaustgas oxygen content. A program in the computer under the dash or in the kick panel then calculates the precise amount of fuel needed to give near-perfect combustion and sends a pulse of current to one or more fuel injectors. Supply the injector with fuel under pressure, zap the solenoid coil with about six volts of direct current, and you get precisely metered fuel. The length of the electrical pulse determines the amount of fuel.

“By switching to fuel injection and controlling one variable–the length of the injector pulse–we were able to do all of the things we needed to,” Taylor explains. “Cold-start, warm-up, warm-running, power-enrichment, and altitude compensation–all of these can be done by simply adjusting the pulse width.” Not only did more-precise fuel metering reduce exhaust emissions, it also did wonders for drivability.

Like General Motors, Chrysler also sees a big future for fuel injection. The company plans to switch its entire passenger-car line to fuel injection by 1986 or ’87. “Why electronic fuel injection? Drivability–clean drivability,” Bernie Robertson, chief engineer for power-train systems, emphasizes. “It does give us some fuel economy. It does give us better performance. But the primary motivation is drivability and performance feel.” Two systems

In the switch to fuel injection at Chrysler and elsewhere, two basic systems have emerged. The first, called throttle-body injection, bolts onto a conventional intake manifold and looks much like the familiar carburetor. The throttle-body casting carries one or two injectors (depending on the fuel demands of the engine), a fuel-pressure regulator, an idle-speed control motor, and a sensor to tell the computer how far open the throttle is.

The second type, called multi-point, uses a separate injector for each cylinder. A throttle body in the intake passage houses the throttle plate, the idle-speed control motor, and some type of sensor to tell the computer how much air is being swallowed. But the intake manifold carries only air, not an air-fuel mixture as in a carburetor or throttle-body-injection manifold. Fuel from the individual injectors is sprayed onto the back of the hot intake valves just as the air enters the cylinders. This not only cools the valves but also ensures that the fuel is completely vaporized.

Each type of fuel injection has its advantages. Essentially, throttle-body is cheaper, and multi-point gives slightly better performance.

“There will be a division just like the one you used to see between two-barrel and four-barrel carburetors,” Taylor predicts. “The car you drive to the drugstore and use to carry the kids to school–that’s going to be a throttle-body car. On heavier cars, luxury cars, and sports cars, you’ll see multi-point.”

Multi-point provides better performance because it allows careful tuning of the shape and size of the intake manifold. Passages up to a foot long are often used to give good horsepower and torque at normal driving speeds.

“If you try to do that with a carburetor or throttle-body injector, you get long transport time. Some of the atomized fuel drops out into liquid form again, which can result in poor warm-up performance,” explains Taylor. “You can add heat to the manifold to keep the fuel from condensing, but you lose power because the volumetric efficiency [the amount of fuel and air entering each cylinder] drops.”

Multi-point is also used with turbocharged engines for similar reasons. Again, the engineers need not worry about transporting vaporized gasoline through the intake passages. Instead they can concentrate on designing the turbocharger system to deliver exactly the right amount of compressed air for each driving condition.

All three of the major domestic car makers sell both throttle-body and multi-point systems. U.S.-built Renaults use a Bendix throttle-body system for cars sold in 49 states and a Bosch multi-point system on those destined for California, where emissions standards are tougher.

In addition to the technical change involved, the switch to fuel injection is also bringing a new multinational supplier to the U.S. Bosch, which made its fame and fortune building sophisticated multi-point systems for European cars, sees America as a growing market for its products. Ford, Chrysler, and GM use Bosch injectors and other components in their mutli-point systems. Bosch also builds the throttle-body injection used by Chrysler and supplies injectors used by Ford in its Throttle-body unit.

Other injection-system parts for U.S. cars are being built by traditional suppliers to Detroit. The heart of the system, the computer, is built by each manufacturer for its own model line. Such a mixture of domestic and foreign sources might have been frowned upon at one time, but no longer. As one engineer for a U.S. car maker said recently, “We’re going to use the best that’s available in the world.”


And what about servicing these electronic wonders? Many mechanics have encountered problems working on the newest electronic fuel-injection systems. After all, they’re part of a strange new world, complete with sealed black boxes and sensitive sensors. And although the electronics are usually reliable, when one of the parts does break or malfunction, it can cost a lot more than an old-fashioned tuneup. But for the mechanic who learns the ropes, these systems can be far simpler and more logical than the complicated emissions controls and carburetor they replace. An added bonus is the self-diagnostic function that most of the computers possess, which checks not only its own function but also that of its sensors.

And while the jury is still out on the long-term durability, the auto makers seem happy. “We’re seeing much better customer satisfaction and a lot fewer warranty claims,” says Taylor. “Though that still doesn’t say you can’t do a botch job of it.”

Every engineer I spoke with predicted that electronic fuel injection would replace the carburetor on passenger cars within three years. Only one could think of a car that would keep its carburetor. A holdout

At Ford’s Service Research Center in Dearborn, Mich., a service engineer and I were going over service changes for the 1984 cars. I couldn’t help noticing the sleek fenders and slippery body panels that made up the front-end test models for the 1985 and later cars. Nestled inside were four-cylinder and V6 engines, each wearing the tell-tale aluminum air box that could only mean fuel injection. So I asked the engineer whether any Fords would still have a carburetor a year or two down the road.

“The use of fuel injection will be expanded,” he predicted. “The major exception will be the Mustang GT.”

I was puzzled. Why would Ford stay with a carburetor on such a high-performance car? Anticipating my question, the engineer smiled at me and continued.

“We think the person who buys that car is someone who likes to tinker on the weekends,” he said. “And we think he will be more comfortable with the old familiar Holley four-barrel.”

Car care for a carefree season

SUMMERTIME may be travels carefree time. But for those motorists who fail to properly maintain their automobiles, the season will be anything but cheap or easy.

Heat can wreak havoc on an automobiles vital parts and an owners wallet. To ensure a fun-filled summer, take time now to service your ear to prevent any unforeseen mechanical difficulties.

One of the best maintenance tips, according to automotive specialists, is to keep your ear “cool.”

“Overhearing generally is the biggest problem, and its due to improper maintenance,” says David Van Sickle, a director with the American Automobile Association. “It manifests itself typically in engine overheating and boiling at low speeds when the air conditioner is on. Thats when the biggest strain is put on the cooling system.”


A visit to a qualified mechanic can go a long way toward preventing roadside mishaps and possible accidents. But automotive experts suggest that summertime pleasure seekers remember the following car maintenance tips to keep their season happy and trouble-free.

  • Change the winter antifreeze and replace it with the proper amount of mixture of coolant solution. Most ears take a 50-50 mixture of coolant and water, but check your manual. Never add plain water to your cooling system unless it is an emergency.
  • Check the oil since antifreeze and circulating oil help cool the engine. The cars owner manual will spell out the recommended grade and service classification. Make sure the oil level is at “full” to maintain maximum cooling effect and lubrication.
  • Inspect all tires. Make sure they are properly inflated since a combination of heat and underinflated tires is a major cause of blowouts. Uneven wear could indicate alignment, suspension or wheel balance problems that should be corrected before any trip. Remember to check tire pressure when the tires are “cold,” before driving three or more miles.
  • Check to make sure your car’s air conditioning is working properly. Make sure the unit has the correct amount of freon.
  • Replace any cracked or worn hoses and drive belts. Also check air and oil filters and replace them if they are clogged or dirty.
  • Periodically inspect the water level of your battery, even if its “maintenance free.” Before traveling long distances, check the alternator and fuses to prevent electrical difficulties.
  • Take your car in for a tune-up if its an older model. New car owners should consult their owners manual for scheduled maintenance and tune-ups.
  • Consider buying a cardboard sunscreen. The screen, placed over the front and back windshields, keeps your cars interior cool and protects the finish on your automobiles dashboard.
  • Inspect all exterior lights—brakelights, headlights, hazard lights and taillights–for alignment and brightness. Also make sure the car’s windshield wiper fluid system is working properly, and replace worn blades.
  • Keep an emergency tool kit in your trunk. The kit should include battery cables, blankets, flashlight with fresh batteries, first-aid kit, spare fuses, jack, tire iron, tire gauge and an empty gasoline can. Never carry gasoline or other flammable liquids in your trunk.
  • Join a full-service motor club. These organizations offer invaluable route planning and roadside assistance services.


Through planning and proper maintenance, motorists can prevent the hassles and mishaps that can ruin a summer vacation. By following the preceding tips, you can make sure that driving will be a pleasant, worry-free and enjoyable part of your summer vacation.


Summer weather can create unforeseen car problems when an automobile is not properly maintained. Maintenance tips discussed include changing antifreeze, checking fluid levels, tire and light inspections and replacing worn hoses.

Luxury car contractors forming a driving force


Black cars’ efforts to unionize worry firms; drivers’ gripes questioned

Miguel Fermin, a boyish-looking business executive with a gleam in his eye, is the kind of man that television infomercials are made of.

After the stock market crash of 1987, Mr. Fermin quit his job as a broker on Wall Street and began chauffeuring around the very people with whom he had once rubbed elbows. Ten years later, Mr. Fermin has climbed his way up from a driver of so-called black car sedans to vice president of Skyline Credit-Ride, the radio-dispatched luxury car service in Long Island City, Queens, where he got his start.

“I was able to buy a house and earn a good income for my wife and three kids,” the 36-year-old man says in defense of the industry that some have criticized. “It is not an easy job. You just have to work hard.”

Just how hard is what is now in question as some of the black car drivers try to unionize. Reports vary on the number of drivers who favor joining the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, but it is clear that the owners and executives of the black car companies are dead set against the movement. Many worry about the toll the union leaders – successful or not – will exact on their $500 million-a-year industry.

“This is no sweatshop,” says Wayne I. Baden, a lawyer for the Black Car Association in Manhattan, which represents 38 companies. “Given what they can and do earn, it is a joke to call them exploited workers. They make a lot of money.”

In the driver’s seat

In the taxi business, the black car is generally considered the assignment of choice. There are about 50 black car companies in New York; unlike their yellow counterparts, they cater mostly to corporate clients who maintain revolving credit accounts. By law, drivers may not take cash or pick up passengers at their own discretion. This mandate has kept drivers safer from the violent crime that has made the trade one of the most dangerous.

Business owners say they are befuddled by the unionization effort because the drivers have the upper hand. Drivers work when they want and for whom they want. They are essentially independent contractors who buy a franchise from a company by purchasing a radio, which can cost as much as $70,000. Many drivers buy more than one radio and then rent or sell them. The only restriction put on the drivers is that they must comply with company bylaws, which typically require drivers to wear business-style attire and use a luxury vehicle, like a Lincoln Town Car.

Nevertheless, union leaders say the drivers have many gripes. “They are really employees,” says Kevin Lynch, the director of organization at the Clifton, N.J., chapter of the machinists union. “You’ve got an industry where the drivers are being ripped off in the most incredible manner. And it is not going to survive.”

Drivers on average gross about $60,000 a year, more than twice as much as yellow cab drivers. Out of that, black car drivers pay about $200 annually in fees to the companies; they also have to pay for their own car, gasoline, insurance and repairs. If the drivers want health insurance or vacation time, they, like other independent contractors, must pay for it out of their own pocket.

At Elite Town Car in Long Island City, at least 30% of the drivers signed a petition to put the question of joining the union to a vote. That vote has been stalled pending review by the National Labor Relations Board, which will decide whether independent contractors can, in fact, unionize. Also before the federal agency are a few allegations by the union of organizing-related harassment by some of the black car firms. Company advocates deny the charges.

While the union vows to get benefits and pensions for the drivers, business owners say these are pie-in-the-sky promises that a company could never afford.

“It’s a lean and mean industry,” says Diana Clemente, owner of Brooklyn-based Big Apple Car. “We are out here in a very competitive industry trying to get and maintain customers.”

Their customers – including law firms, brokerage houses and government agencies – put out bids to get the lowest prices and readily jump from firm to firm looking for the best service. Loyalty to a single black car company is rare, although most of the clients want the luxury service.

Firms’ view colored by concern

If the unionization is allowed to proceed, black car company advocates say, the entire industry would undergo a shake-up. Organizing the drivers can take place only on a company-to-company basis. Some forecast that any firm whose drivers unionize would go out of business if it had to meet the extensive demands of the union while trying to remain competitive with non-union shops.

“We allow our drivers to seek out their own destiny and to be very successful,” says Victor Dizengoff, executive director of the Black Car Association. “Why was this industry approached by the union? We couldn’t begin to understand.”

Even if the drivers unionize, they may not get everything they hoped for and business owners don’t have to comply with everything they demand.

“Just because a union says they want a 30% wage increase doesn’t mean they’ll get it,” says Casey Ichniowski, a professor of human resources management at Columbia Business School. “The rate of getting first contracts is not all that high in the U.S. And ira union is defined by whether or not it gets its first contract, it may not work out.”

Luxury car profiles

Luxury sedans

BMW 5 series

Almost since its introduction in 1972, the BMW 5 Series has been the benchmark for midsize luxury sport sedans, whose buyers want prestige and luxury as well as performance. Last redesigned in 1997, the 5 Series got a complete makeover for 2004. The revised exterior reflects BMW’s new – and controversial – styling scheme, made up of sharp edges and angles, as first seen on the 7 Series and on the Z4. The new 5 Series sedan comes in three versions: the 525i, 530i and the 545i. The model designations represent the engines – a 2.5-liter and 3.0-liter inline six engines, largely unchanged from before, and the 4.4-liter V-8, borrowed from the 7 Series for the 545i.

Gadgets and innovations: All models come with a standard six-speed manual transmission; optional is a six-speed Steptronic automatic that can be shifted. Borrowed from the 7 Series are: Active Roll Stabilization, Active Cruise Control and a Harman Kardon Logic7 sound system. Active Front Steering, a system that adjusts the steering ratio and the amount of power assist for feel and control under varying driving conditions, debuts. Safety features include: head and side airbags, front and back; stability control; and active head restraints. Also available are adaptive bi-xenon headlights, rain-sensing windshield wipers, heated power mirrors, front and back seat heaters and a heated steering wheel.

Telematics: IDrive is standard and borrowed from the 7 Series to operate audio and climate controls through one, video-game-like knob; DVD navigation with voice commands; adaptive cruise control; CD player with MP3 compatibility.

Base price: $39,995

Jaguar XJ

Jaguar’s flagship XJ series is completely redesigned for 2004 but is easily recognizable as a Jaguar. As it has through seven generations, the XJ sedans provide the utmost in elegant appearance, luxury accommodations and graceful but powerful performance. The car is longer, taller and wider than its predecessor, providing roomier interior dimensions, especially noticeable in headroom and rear legroom. All XJs are sedans with three styles available: the XJ8; the luxury Vanden Plas; and the performance XJR. The XJ8 and Vanden Plas come with a 4.2-liter, 294-horsepower V-8; the XJR supercharges the same engine for 390 horsepower. Engines are paired to a six-speed automatic transmission.

Gadgets and innovations: The XJ’s structure consists of aluminum body panels hung on an aluminum frame to reduce weight by 200 pounds over the previous model. Manufacturing techniques were borrowed from aerospace. Standard safety features include side and head curtain airbags with sensors to monitor the front occupants’ weight and position so the airbags deploy at a lesser rate or not at all if it determines it is unsafe. Available features include: traction control, adjustable pedals, a self-leveling suspension, heated seats, xenon headlights and a power rear sunshade.

Telematics: Prewiring for phone; navigation system.

Base price: $59,995

Lexus LS 430

The Lexus LS 430, which started life as the LS 400 when the Toyota luxury brand was launched in 1989, has continuously evolved. For 2004, it is freshened again. Exterior revisions are minor. The interior, with abundant roominess for front and rear passengers, continues to have rich leather with wood trim and electroluminescent gauges. A number of new features are now standard, including a moonroof and a six-speed automatic transmission that allows manual shifting. The LS 430 is powered by a 4.3-liter V-8 engine, producing 290 horsepower.

Gadgets and innovations: Knee airbags for front passengers and adaptive headlights that swivel during around curves and corners are now standard. New options include: a precollision system that uses radar to detect an avoidable collision and prepares the car for the crash by tightening seatbelts, switching to sport mode on models equipped with air suspensions and activating maximum brake pressure; SmartAccess to allow the driver to start the car without inserting a key in the ignition; and a tire-pressure monitor. Side, side-curtain and knee airbags supplement the front ones.

Telematics: A rear backup camera, additional voice-recognition functions, satellite radio, Bluetooth hands-free compatibility on vehicles with the navigation system, Lexus Link emergency communications system.

Base price: $55,750

Volkswagen Phaeton

Volkswagen, the German auto manufacturer that brought the world the Beetle, is trying to move upscale, first with the now-defunct Passat W8 sedan and this year with the Phaeton, a name that refers to the elegant carriages of the 18th century that were converted into automobiles the following century. Already on sale in Europe and going on sale in the United States in December, the Phaeton takes on the BMW 7 Series, Lexus LS 430 and Mercedes-Benz S-Class. With an exterior design unlike any other Volkswagen, the Phaeton is outfitted with luxury appointments, including leather upholstery, 12-way adjustable front seats and a power adjustable steering column and position memory functions. The U.S. version will come only as the long-wheelbase version – a shorter one is sold in Europe – with either a 4.2-liter, 335-horsepower V-8 engine or a 6.0-liter, 420-horsepower W-12 that makes 420 horsepower.

Gadgets and innovations: Volkswagen’s 4Motion all-wheel drive; four-wheel air suspension; stability control; brake assist for maximum braking in emergencies; eight airbags; active front head restraints; seats with massage function; heated steering wheel; solar sunroof; Keyless Access for starting the ignition. Purchase of 2004 Phaeton includes a free trip to Germany to see the vehicle made.

Telematics: Infotainment center with 7-inch color screen, navigation system, on-board computer, telephone, television and audio system, with various controls on or surrounding the screen.

Base price: $65,000 (estimated)

Also to consider: Acura RL; Audi A6; Buick Park Avenue, LeSabre; Cadillac Deville, SLS; Ford Crown Victoria; Infiniti Q45, M45; Jaguar S-Type; Lexus GS 300, GS 430; Lincoln Town Car; Mercury Grand Marquis; Pontiac Bonneville; Toyota Avalon; Saab 9-5; Volvo S80

Coming attractions: 2005 Acura RL; 2005 Audi A6; 2005 Cadillac STS; 2005 Jaguar S-Type; 2005 Lexus GS 430